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Home Policy Articles: International Trade, Development & Finance: Page 2

In the early days of the 21st century, countries around the globe are becoming ever more interdependent as the need to share resources, address common international problems, and provide aid in development becomes more pressing. International trade, development, and finance is – customarily – a hugely controversial area of public policy, as economic development must be balanced with concern for human rights, foreign aid, and barriers such as trade disputes. This area of public policy considers a wide range of subjects including international organizations, international markets, and the implications of globalization. offers a clear window into international trade, development and finance policy.



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Canada and the U.S.: A Seamless Energy Border?

In this report Bradley and Watkins explore the closely integrated energy economies of Canada and the United States. They point out that energy trade has grown significantly and become more market-based – stimulated by deregulation and underwritten by NAFTA. The authors argue this relationship has generated substantial benefits for Canada, and that growth has taken place with little friction; this said, they suggest that this benign situation is likely to change.

Canada Now: Fading Power or Future Power

This report discusses issues considered at National Foreign Policy Conference in 2003. It was found that Canada needs to reconsider its position on foreign affairs due to the weakness of multilateral institutions, the change in security concerns and the instability of the international system.

Canada's Fiscal Advantage

In this book Joe Ruggeri and Jennifer McMullin argue that, contrary to a widely held view, Canada’s fiscal system is competitive with that of the United States.

Canada's R&D Deficit - And How to Fix It: Removing the Roadblocks

In this study, Richard Harris re-examines the relationship between productivity growth and innovation, and Canadian government policy. Harris argues that increasing Canada’s productivity growth is key to raising living standards. Accordingly, he views innovation as instrumental in driving productivity improvements. Harris points out that (internationally) there is significant understanding vis-à-vis the importance of research and development (R&D), although there is still considerable policy debate around the best means of fostering an ideal R&D climate.

Canada's Secret Constitution: NAFTA, WTO and the End of Sovereignty?

In Canada’s Secret Constitution: NAFTA, WTO and the End of Sovereignty?, Stephen Clarkson examines the effect of international treaties on Canada’s domestic policy. Treaties, Clarkson asserts, internationalize part of a state’s legal order.

Canada-US Regulatory Co-operation

This report was the result of day-long symposium set up to debate how to best move forward with Canada-US regulatory co-operation. First, the benefits of greater co-operation are reviewed, then changes to the way the government seems to view regulation as a tool for policy are suggested. Consideration is given to the differences between Canadians and Americans and the negative effects these differences may have. Finally a strategy for introducing greater co-operation is suggested in light of the previous discussion.

Canada-US Regulatory Co-operation: Charting a Path Forward

This report by Andre Downs and Doug Blair concern itself with Canada-US trade regulation and the ways in which it may effect both economies. First Downs and Blair look at bi-lateral co-operation agreements and what was required to make them successful. Next, the report considers the potential negative impact of regulatory regimes on productivity and economic growth. Finally, the report examines specific sectors that would benefit from a more co-operative regulation scheme.

Canada’s Changing Role in Global Supply Chains

With the globalization of the world economy, Kip Beckman and Danielle Goldfarb explain that companies now produce products made from regional and global components rather than building products with parts that originate all from a single place.

Canadian Workers Need the Tools to Do the Job and Keep Pace in the Global Investment Race

In this e-brief, Goldfarb and Robson argue that Canada’s business investment is essential if Canadian living standards are to increase, and that Canadian workers need the infrastructure resulting from increased investment in order to facilitate that growth. Goldfarb and Robson measured both national and provincial investment performance against the performance of other industrialized countries.

China’s Economic Growth: Do We Have a Game Plan?

The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has received much attention over the last few years. Patrick Kirby points out that as China sustains growth rates of around 9 percent year after year, its influence on world markets has become obvious. To discuss China as an emerging world economic power, the Public Policy Forum organized a conference held in March 2005. This roundtable brought together Canadian experts on various aspects of China, its economy, and its impact on the Canadian economy.

CIIA Student Foreign Policy Symposium

This collaborative paper argues that a new approach to the implementation of foreign policy is necessary due to a changing international scene. Keeping in mind the importance of security, prosperity and the maintenance of Canadian values this report suggests the use of multilateralism, specialization and strong Canada - U.S. relations to move Canada forward on the international stage.

Citistates and the State of Cities: Political-Economy and Fiscal-Federalism Dimensions

This Working Paper by Thomas Courchene examines the dynamic and potential of cities which he deems to be “Global City Regions” (GCR). As Courchene explains, cities, as political actors, actively work with one another, and even other countries, to expand their regional influence and grow economically. In Canada, Courchene points to Vancouver, Edmonton/Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax as examples of Global City Regions. Courchene explains that the focus of this paper is to examine both why GCRs have become so important in the information era and how these cities may evolve to effectively drive the local, national, and global economies.

Civil Society and North American Integration

Laura Macdonald argues that recent proposals put forward to deepen North American integration have largely ignored the role of civil society.

Cleaning Up the UN in an Age of US Hegemony

In this brief commentary, Radek Sikorski looks critically at the United Nations and expresses a need for changes. Sikoriski points out that the dominance of the United States within the UN as well as their willingness to act without the organization has severely undermined the integrity of the UN. Further use of “coalitions of the willing” has come to be seen as more effective than the diplomatic methods employed by the UN.

Climate Change: An Opportunity for a Bilateral Approach

In this report from a conference organized by the Public Policy Forum and the Woodrow Wilson Center, Michael Lister highlights conclusions regarding bilateral Canada-US climate change policies.

Controlling Irregular Migration in Canada: Reconciling Security Concerns with Human Rights Protection

This article by François Crépeau and Delphine Nakache examines recent developments in Canada (following the events of September 11, 2001) regarding migration control.

Corporate Citizenship and the Evolving Relationship between Non-Governmental Organizations and Corporations

This paper written by Malcolm McIntosh and Ruth Thomas and sponsored by the British-North American Committee (a group of leaders from business, labor, and academia in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada who describe themselves as committed to harmonious, constructive relations among the three countries and their citizen) asks what type of relationship should exist between business and society in light of the emergence of the concept of “corporate citizenship.” In this context, the paper synthesizes the debates on the subject, underscoring that good corporate citizenship requires that businesses undergo “fundamental conceptual and organisational change.” The paper then examines ways of operationalizing corporate citizenship initiatives, including performance monitoring.

Course Correction: Advice on Canada’s Future Foreign Policy

This report was submitted to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (as it existed at the time of this paper’s writing); it is centred on discussions stemming from the Consultative Forum on Canada’s Role in the World, held in April 2003. The forum was organized by the Conference Board of Canada, and included participants from Canada’s business community. The main argument of this submission is simply that the prosperity pillar remains critical to Canada’s foreign policy.

Deeper, Broader: A Roadmap for a Treaty of North America

This paper is part of a book-length publication, edited by Courchene, Savoie and Schwanen, which contains papers that were presented at the “Art of the State” Conference, hosted by the IRPP and held in October 2003. This conference featured experts from Canada, Mexico and the United States who came together to explore new ideas, new instruments and new processes for enriching the North American experience. The main goal of the conference was to remedy gaps in public discourse, while at the same time understanding how three sovereign nations could advance common causes and manage their increasing interdependence.

Democracy and Economic Development

David Gillies identifies one of the reasons cited for promoting democracy abroad: the claim that accountable and open political systems, those that respect human rights, practice the rule of law, and formulate policy through informed choice, are more likely to develop into dynamic economies. Gillies posits, however, that the relationships involving political system, policy choice, and economic performance are far more complex than the claims of many who promote democracy.

Democracy and Peace-Building

Jane Boulden argues that, implicitly or explicitly, democratization has long been an element in the foreign policies of Western states; further, in the post-Cold War era it has become integral to peace agreements and post-conflict peace building. She argues that this development has implications for national and international policy, as well as for academic thinking. Boulden suggests there are two schools of thinking regarding democracy and peace-building: ideas promoted by the United Nations, and those promoted by academics and policy-makers. She examines both of these schools of thought, using the situation in Iraq as a backdrop.

Divide and Conquer: The FTAA, US Trade Strategy and Public Services in the Americas

In this paper, Sinclair and Traynor argue that the services and investment rules of the proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas Treaty (FTAA) present a grave threat to public services and public interest regulation throughout the Americas. They base their analysis on the neo-liberal philosophy that the smallest government is best government; they contend the FTAA would create intense pressure to privatize, deregulate, and erode existing public services.

Don’t Overlook the “MEs” : Medium-sized Firms Show the Way to Global Success

This briefing by Trefor Munn-Venn presents the key findings of the Annual Innovation Report 2004 of the Conference Board of Canada. Specifically, the Annual Report examines the innovation capabilities and performance of Canada’s often-overlooked medium-sized firms. The Conference Board argues that medium-sized firms may be a model of how other Canadian firms can find their way in the global marketplace.

Economic Freedom of North America, 2004 Annual Report

This Fraser Institute publication is the second edition of the annual report, Economic Freedom of North America.

Economic Freedom of the World, 2004 Annual Report

This Fraser Institute publication is an annual edition of the report Economic Freedom of the World.

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